4064. For thoughtful persons a thorny question therefore arises, and it is this: do the birds know what they are doing, or to put it more strongly, “Do birds actually know anything.”
4065. There are two schools of thought on the question of whether birds know what they know, and those schools of thought are not simply divergent, they are positively antagonistic to each other.
4066. For those who know that birds know the things they know, the problem to be faced is one of language; it is a semantic question. In general birds do not speak English, and the ancient race of birds spoke neither Latin of Greek, for the most part. There were exceptions no doubt, but they were so rare as to not be worth considering.